Introduction: Hypertension is described by the Brazilian Societies of Cardiology, Hypertension, and Nephrology as a multifactorial clinical condition characterized by sustained high blood pressure. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for blood pressure changes, as well as physical inactivity, and alcohol and salt abuse, among others. Hypertension has been described as increasingly prevalent in the adolescent population. Objective: To assess the prevalence of hypertension in adolescent Brazilian students. Methods: The articles were selected from the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Adolec, SciELO, and LILACS. Grey literature articles were searched in the databases Tripdatabase and Capes Thesis and Dissertation Bank. The references of the selected studies were reviewed to identify possibly eligible studies. No restrictions were used with respect to publication date, language, or publication status. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers who also extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality according to eight criteria related to sampling, blood pressure measurement, and result presentation. The meta-analysis was calculated followed by analyses of sensitivity, publication bias, and heterogeneity. Results: Literature screening resulted in 1,577 articles of which 22 were included, corresponding to 17 studies with 14,115 adolescents, 51.2% (n=7,230) females. The prevalence of hypertension was 8% (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 5.0-11; I2 = 97.6%), numerically more frequent in males and in the Southern region. Sensitivity analysis by subgroup stratification did not eliminate heterogeneity and meta-regression did not identify its causes. The effect of small studies was identified. Conclusion: Despite the different methodologies used by the studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that hypertension is prevalent in adolescent Brazilian students. Future investigations should standardize the techniques, equipment, and references to improve their methodological quality.
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